Geneva Agreement Between Pakistan And India

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The agreements consisted of several instruments: a bilateral agreement between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan on the principles of mutual relations, in particular non-interference and non-interference; a declaration on international guarantees signed by the Soviet Union and the United States; a bilateral agreement between Pakistan and Afghanistan on the voluntary return of Afghan refugees; and an agreement on the settlement of the situation in Afghanistan, signed by Pakistan and Afghanistan and attested by the Soviet Union and the United States. In 1979, the Soviet army intervened in its neighbouring country, Afghanistan, to make it part of the communist regime. After a short period of time, the task became very difficult for the Soviet Union. The Afghan mujahideen, supported by Pakistan and the international community, dealt a blow to the Soviet cause. Soviet leaders acknowledged the failure of the expedition and degraded socio-economic conditions at the national level forcing Soviet leaders to emerge from the catastrophic situation. Thus, in early 1981, a process of agreement under the promise of the United Nations began. After lengthy negotiations and discussions, the final agreement was signed in Geneva on 14 April 1988. As part of the agreement, a bilateral agreement was signed between Pakistan and Afghanistan on the voluntary repatriation of safe havens under safeguards signed by the United States and the Soviet Union. A deadline was set for the nine-month withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, during which 50% of the armed forces had to withdraw within three months.

Afghan resistance groups did not participate in the agreement, which had devastating effects on Afghanistan after the withdrawal of Soviet forces. The non-India-Pakistan agreement is a single bilateral agreement which, in a sense, broadens the scope of Articles 56 and 15 of the first and second protocols of the Geneva Convention. These articles state that factories or facilities containing dangerous forces, namely dams, and nuclear power plants, should not be attacked, even if these objects are military targets, when such an attack can result in the release of dangerous forces and, consequently, serious losses among the civilian population. 4.

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